Some companies market perfumes made with human pheromones to attract others.
However a drawback to using human pheromones is they may trigger aggression.
On the other hand, traditional plant pheromones all have soothing properties, encourage calmness, and are used for meditation and religious ceremonies.
In humans and other mammals, sexual attraction can also trigger aggression.
Androstenone, a pheromone in pigs, triggers both sexual attraction and aggression in boars. Human men produce the same chemical in their armpits.
In mice, certain pheromones cause male mice to kill other male mice.
The attacks depend largely on odor cues (male odors increase attacks, female cues decrease attack ).
In many mammals such as lions and bears, males will kill the offspring of a female so that they may mate with the female.
Sex hormones stimulate production of urinary pheromones that increase the intensity of fighting in rodents.
But the urine of castrated rats lacks the aggression-provoking pheromone. Conversely, the urine of female rats contains an aggression-inhibiting pheromone. For these reasons, stick to traditional plant pheromones.
Plants use chemicals to attract bees and other pollinators to their flowers. Some plant pheromones have similar chemistry to animal pheromones.
Musk is a strong pheromone derived from musk deer, musk ducks, musky moles, muskrats, musk ox and musk beetles.
But similar pheromones exist in musk melons, musk hyacinths, musk cherries, musk thistle, musk rose, musk plums and musk wood.
The truffles prized by French gourmets as aphrodisiacs are a fungi that has an odor nearly identical to androstenol, a sex attractant for pigs and very similar to chemicals that act as sex attractants in humans.
Perfumes arose from plant oils with smells similar to animal pheromones. Plant oils with the strongest similarity to human sexual pheromones come from jasmine, ylang ylang and patchouli.
Several companies have been set up to develop romantic human pheromones for the general consumer.
However, the products from these companies have had disappointing results.
At Skin Biology, for an experiment, we purchased a variety of very expensive human pheromones from other companies and gave them to volunteers for testing.
We also gave the volunteers various traditional pheromone-like oils from plants.
The volunteers were asked to record their results as to whether other people were more friendly, talkative, and affectionate.
Surprisingly, in every case our test subjects found few positive responses to the expensive human pheromones.
On the other hand, all the volunteers reported numerous very positive responses to at least some of the tested plant pheromones. The most effective plant oils were jasmine, asian oud, ylang ylang, lavender, sandalwood, patchouli, nutmeg and SB-74.
The ancient Greeks (and many other ancient cultures) routinely used plant oils for both medical and cosmetic purposes.
In the 1930s a French chemist, Rene Maurice Gattefosse, discovered the benefits of lavender oil.
This started his research on the use of essential oils and Gattefosse later published the first modern book on the uses of essential oils.
Pheromone SB-74 is a natural oil product developed by Skin Biology.
It was developed during a search for mood enhancers that would improve interpersonal feelings, but it is not an aphrodisiac like jasmine or ylang ylang.
SB-74 seems to generate positive feelings and increased bonding.
Users say it increases friendliness, warmth, affability, fondness, pleasantness, geniality charm, affection and sociability.
We have added it to our mood enhancing oils because of its very positive actions.